To improve fertility of forest lands

kalkosana mezs

Fertility of forest lands

The beautiful forests are the pride of Latvia. The purpose of forestry is to ensure the increasing of forests as the capital value by creating high-productivity, qualitative and vital stands. Of course, also the preservation of biological diversity in all forests is equally essential, since the ecosystem has an important role to play in the protection of soil, waters and landscapes. The Latvian survey data show that non-perspective spruce stands occupy approximately 500 ha in each forestry. Currently, the largest areas (68% on average) are increased-risk stands.  The average age of these stands is 38 years, and preservation of these stands for up to the age of 80 years is not useful.

The worst growing potential is observed in forests on drained peat soils. The number of good sections in forests on dry mineral soils and drained mineral soils is almost twice as large as the number of non-perspective sections. In cool, damp soils colloids absorb many hydrogen ions and little calcium, magnesium and especially potassium cations. In warm and dry soils more calcium, magnesium and potassium ions and fewer hydrogen ions are absorbed. Decomposition of the organic substance in the soil (in drained peat soils) facilitates its acidification. It is caused by organic acids that form during the decomposition process. Soil acidification is facilitated also by dissolution of carbon dioxide in water and the formation of carbonic acid, as well as entering of nitrogen and sulphur compounds into the soil together with the acid atmospheric precipitations. The tree species growing in acid soils are less valuable from the point of view of usable timber. Also in these species the deficiency of calcium is observed, particularly during the first five years of development. Needles become brown, branches form incompletely, black branches develop. These signs indicate that the growing rate of the tree is reduced and the material obtained would be of a lower quality. For trees, as well as field crops, calcium is essential in the formation of cell membranes by creating a solid stem and fibre. Besides, the soil acidification has negative consequences on the future vegetation and soil productivity in the long term perspective.

Lime is necessary also for young stands and nursery areas:

Calcium source
it provides the soil with the nutrients that ensure healthy growing of plants and young trees
Soil Fertility
lime has a positive effect on soil, it neutralises the harmful acids and restores the hummus thereby making the soil more fertile
lime helps in the prevention of the influence of acid rain

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